DEMOCRACY AND CAPITALISM HAVE FAILED
“The best argument against democracy is a five-minute conversation with the average voter” Winston Churchill.
I am an American and I need to start by saying I am not a Democrat or a Republican I am an independent. I hold both parties in equal contempt and detest both equally. The two bastions of Western civilization, Europe and the United States, are headed for disaster along with the rest of the planet. We are heading toward a planetary collapse and it is disheartening to realize that the vast majority of people deny it, ignore it or misdiagnose it. Most know we have serious issues but fail to grasp the reality of a planetary collapse. The reason is, of course, it is unthinkable. While it is unthinkable it is possible and at this point very probable. Actually almost inevitable. If something is not 101% impossible it is possible even if only remotely so. On our present path a planetary collapse is not so remote and actually the odds favor it. Globally we are facing the majority of conditions that took out Rome and numerous other empires and civilizations. Most people have so many issues on their plates of a personal nature competing for their attention something of that scale is beyond their comprehension and even if comprehensible it is beyond their ability to do anything about it. They may say they agree but shrug and go back to their personal issues. In the US both parties share an equal blame. One side says (metaphorically) 2+2=3 the other side says 2+2=5 (also metaphorically). The answer is in the middle as is usually the case in most everything. Like the old song goes “nobody’s right if everybody’s wrong.” Just because one position is wrong does not mean the exact opposite position is right. There are always more wrong answers than right ones to any problem and more often than not there is only one actual right one. If there is more than one answer that could be considered right one is usually the best. That is the correct one and the one we want. That is the one we need. Captain Picard on Star Trek TNG said: “sometimes the right thing is not the correct thing“. How true that is.
Western civilization is the best we have come up with within the timeline of our presently discernible and/or recorded history (Approx. 12,000 years). Steven Pinker in his book “The Blank Slate the Modern Denial of Human Nature” said of Western civilization: “Not only acknowledging human nature compatible with social and moral progress, but it can help explain the obvious progress that has taken place over millennia. Customs that were common throughout history and prehistory-slavery, punishment by mutilation, execution by torture, genocide for convenience, endless blood feuds, the summary killing of strangers, rape as the spoils of war, infanticide as a form of birth control, and the legal ownership of women-have vanished from large parts of the world.” (Chapter 9) And in chapter 14: “……part of a long-running expansion of freedom in the West that has granted children their always-present desire for more autonomy than parents are willing to cede. In traditional societies, children were shackled to the family’s land, betrothed in arranged marriages, and under the thumb of the family patriarch. That began to change in medieval Europe, and some historians argue it was the first steppingstone in the extension of rights that we associate with the Enlightenment and that culminated in the abolition of feudalism and slavery.” If we do not stop the present shift to the left and anarchy we will lose all these advancements. I will add if we shift too far right we will also lose all the advancements. We are in danger of becoming like Martin Luther’s drunken peasant: “Human nature is like a drunk peasant. Lift him into the saddle on one side, over he topples on the other side.”
We are repeating the errors of the past that have caused all major civilizations to collapse. In that collapse the above progress stated by Pinker will be erased and far worse than the original problems will result. If we are to extricate ourselves from the horrendous future we are hurtling towards we must look to the past for parallels and from them determine our (humanity in general) errors and find a solution. The Roman Empire is a good case to study as there are so many records and writings of it available. The Roman Empire started out as a Republic as did the United States but due to incompetence, greed, ignorance, complacency, dishonesty, and corruption (describes the present United States doesn’t it?) it collapsed in 27 B.C. and was replaced with the Empire. The Empire is what most people think of when Ancient Rome is mentioned. Most people do not realize that the “glory” that we think of that was Rome was the Empire after the Republic fell. That Roman Empire lasted until 476 A.D. However, something else many people do not realize is there were actually two Roman Empires: the Eastern Roman Empire and the Western Roman Empire. The Western Empire, the original empire and what we think of as the Roman Empire, was headquartered in Rome and the Eastern Empire was headquartered in Constantinople. The actual capital of the original Roman Empire was moved to Constantinople (present day Istanbul) in 330 A.D. by the Emperor Constantine. Both empires claimed to be THE Roman Empire and each had emperors but most power was transferred to Constantinople by Constantine. It is one of those convoluted political affairs that we find throughout history. Both Rome and Constantinople had what each considered the true emperor and capitol but Constantinople was for all practical purposes the capitol. After the fall of the Western Empire to barbarians in 476 A.D. the Eastern portion of the Empire lasted another thousand years until 1453 when it fell to the Muslims. I hope to discuss this in a bit more detail sometime in the future but I bring this up now to give hope that all is not lost. If the United States and the Western hemisphere nations play their “cards right” we have the prospects of surviving a few hundred more years. Europe is rapidly declining in much the same way Ancient Rome declined and ultimately fell but the U.S. does not have to fall with it. The US and the Western hemisphere can survive if we can learn from the past and stop the absurd habit humanity has of constantly repeating the errors of the past. We have to take the politics out of it. In other words, in the case of America, take the Democrats and Republicans out of the equation. We are going to have to analyze the accumulated thoughts of the brilliant minds of the past and present and overlay them on our problems if we have any hope or chance of survival. Winston Churchill said: “The farther back you can look, the farther forward you are likely to see” One such author that attempted to foretell the future by the past was Oswald Spengler and his monumental work “Decline of the West” (Published in 1918). A few of his words from the introduction:
“In this book is attempted for the first time the venture of predetermining history, of following the still untraveled stages in the destiny of Culture, and specifically the only Culture of our time and on our planet which is actually in the phase of fulfillment – the West European – American.”
“Is there a logic of history? Is there, beyond all the casual and incalculable elements of the separate events, something that we may call a metaphysical structure of historic humanity,…..? Does world-history present to the seeing eye certain grand traits, again and again, with sufficient constancy to justify certain conclusions? And if so, what are the limits to which reasoning from such premises may be pushed?”
“Thus our theme, which originally comprised only the limited problem of present-day civilization, broadens itself into a new philosophy – the philosophy of the future, so far as the metaphysically exhausted soil of the West can bear such, and in any case the only philosophy which is within the possibilities of the West European mind in its next stages.”
Another book worth mentioning is the Foundation science fiction series by Isaac Asimov. It is the story of humanity after it reaches the stars and sets up a mighty Galactic Empire. His series is the fall of that Empire. In it he too deals with the possibility of scientifically predicting the future by the use of mathematics in a science he called “psychohistory”. He wrote it when World War Two had been in progress for two years. As his inspiration he used the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire by Edward Gibbon. A monumental work and heavy read which he read twice. Most people bog down the first time and many do not finish. Here I quote several short paragraphs from three of the books in the Foundation series explaining psychohistory. Some very interesting thoughts for those that can think. For those that can’t think or use emotions stay out of the way. We do not have the time to foolishly waste on wild goose chases as time is short and growing shorter.
“The Galactic Empire was falling.
“It was a colossal Empire, stretching across millions of worlds from arm-end to arm-end of the mighty multi-spiral that was the Milky Way. Its fall was colossal, too – and a long one, for it had a long way to go.
“It had been falling for centuries before one man became really aware of that fall. That man was Hari Seldon, the man who represented the one spark of creative effort left among the gathering decay. He developed and brought forth to its highest pitch the science of psychohistory.
“Psychohistory dealt not with man, but man-masses. It was the science of mobs; mobs in their billions. It could forecast reactions to stimuli with something of the accuracy that a lesser science could bring to the forecast of a rebound of a billiard ball. The reaction of one man could be forecast by no known mathematics; the reaction of a billion is something else again.
“Hari Seldon plotted the social and economic trends of the time, sighted along the curves and foresaw the continuing and accelerating fall of civilization and the gap of thirty thousand years that must elapse before a struggling new Empire could emerge from the ruins.
“It was too late to stop that fall, but not too late to narrow the gap of barbarism. . .” (Page 1 from Foundation and Empire)
“The First Galactic Empire had endured for tens of thousands of years. It had included all the planets of the Galaxy in a centralized rule, sometimes tyrannical, sometimes benevolent, always orderly. Human beings had forgotten that any other form of existence could be.
“All except Hari Seldon.
“Hari Seldon was the last great scientist of the First Empire. It was he who brought the science of psychohistory to its full development. Psychohistory was the quintessence of sociology; it was the science of human behavior reduced to mathematical equations.
“The individual human being is unpredictable, but the reactions of human mobs, Seldon found, could be treated statistically. The larger the mob, the greater the accuracy that could be achieved. And the size of the human masses that Seldon worked with was no less than the population of the Galaxy, which in his time was numbered in the quintilian’s.
“It was Seldon, then, who foresaw, against all common sense and popular belief, that the brilliant Empire which seemed so strong was in the state of irremediable decay and decline. He foresaw (or he solved his equations and interpreted its symbols, which amounts to the same thing) that left to itself, the galaxy would pass through a thirty-thousand year period of misery and anarchy before a unified government would rise once more.” (Page 1 from Second Foundation)
“The First Galactic Empire was falling. It had been decaying and breaking down for centuries and only one man fully realized that fact.”
“He was Hari Seldon, the last great scientist of the first Empire, and it was he who perfected psychohistory – the science of human behavior reduced to mathematical equations.
“The individual human being is unpredictable, but the reactions of human mobs, Seldon found, could be treated statistically. The larger the mob, the greater the accuracy that could be achieved. And the size of the human masses that Seldon worked with was no less than the population of all the inhabited millions of worlds of the Galaxy.
“Seldon’s equations told him that, left to itself, the Empire would fall and that thirty thousand years of human misery and agony would elapse before a second Empire would arise from the ruins. And yet, if one could adjust some of the conditions that existed, that Interregnum could be decreased to a single millennium – just one thousand years.”(Page xi from Foundation’s Edge)
To be blunt the human race had better get its’ collective heads out of that often crudely described sunless place. We are in a serious situation facing that planetary collapse I mentioned earlier. In the West we have reached such a level of ignorance,stupidity, absurdity, corruption, complacency and dysfunction we have turned our society into what can only be described as a circus sideshow. We living in the West have some extremely hard decisions to make that will make or break humanity for thousands of years, possibly eternity.
Western civilization is at stake. Western civilization has become an evil in the opinion of many college professors and leftist intellectuals. (Do not confuse a person that is an intellectual with one that is intelligent. Intellectuals deal in theories and an intelligent person deals in facts, reality and logic.) Historians say Western Civilization can find the seeds of it in the civilizations of Ancient Rome and Greece. Western civilization as we have come to think of it began in earnest 2000 years ago with birth of Christ and the subsequent rise of Christianity but technically the trail of breadcrumbs can be traced back to around 10,000 BC. That is about the time of the development of agriculture and organized religion. Agriculture was probably one of the most, if not the most, far reaching developments of humanity. That made a collective life with a fixed location feasible and gave an alternative to the, up to that time, necessary nomadic life. A fixed location made possible the accumulation of a surplus of food for the first time and of “things” which eventually included writing and recording knowledge. Organized religion also developed along side agriculture. From that time to the present civilizations and empires have risen and fallen to the now present dominant civilization: Western. It should be painfully apparent to all, with the possible exception of the mentally impaired Western civilization is now declining. Actually stagnating, disintegrating, collapsing and imploding might be better terms. Both our forms of government and economics have failed to meet the challenges necessary to solve the problems being encountered in a rapidly changing world. The major Western power, economically, militarily and politically, the United States, went in a short period of time from a loose knit collection of agricultural economies to a technological powerhouse landing a man on the Moon in less than a decade from the initial conception of the goal to having to hitch rides to the International Space Station on the shuttles of its former competitors, the Russians. It went from being the leader of the first world to rapidly deteriorating toward third world status. From the leader in industrial capacity to moving closer and closer to falling behind nations that 50 to 60 years ago were largely illiterate, impoverished, starving and had virtually no industrial capacity. We are presently unable to manufacture even our basic necessities for internal use to insure self-sufficiency. From number one in virtually everything: science, medicine, military, education, innovation, standard of living, research, development, to lagging or declining in all those fields. Our form of democracy and capitalism have not just failed but failed miserably and we have become so dysfunctional we no longer have a competitive edge. Name an area we are not behind in or moving in that direction. We somehow think we can regain the “glory days” by doing the same things that precipitated the deterioration. We are beating a dead horse. An old saying from the streets applies to the social democracy and capitalism as ours have become: “when the horse is dead…get off.”
Our numerous problems are of such staggering proportions they are barely, if at all, comprehensible. We are twenty-two trillion dollars in debt. We have been regularly incurring a trade deficit of hundreds of billions of dollars annually, for the most part, with a nation that wants to replace us as the economic super power. We have become dysfunctional due to the polarization of society by two diametrically opposing and for the most part incompatible views. We have an immigration problem that only exacerbates our internal dysfunction. We are also taking in a group that does not believe in our culture and has openly stated they want to destroy it and us. We are suffering from environmental degradation that is beginning to affect the economy and quality of life. We have foolishly not developed a future energy source instead depending on the energy of the past (petroleum). This lack of foresight was a grave mistake made by the Dutch (wind) and the British (steam) that lost their dominance due to that very same blunder. We have depleted much of our internal resources and have allowed China, our main competitor, to globally gobble up resources we will need to maintain our position of leadership or even equality. (Read Winner Take All report in “Books Worth Reading” section in this site) We have gutted our educational system and have produced a generation that does not have the ability to critically think. They have replaced thinking with emotional reactions. We are letting our military superiority lapse and our ability of being able to prevail in a conflict is in doubt. We have one of the most pampered and spoiled populations in human history some of whom are running around in “pussy hats” and masks (antifas) thinking they are oppressed. We have reached the tipping point and most refuse to admit it. If we do not solve these problems we have a very ugly future and we will not solve them by a show of hands. In ancient Greek theater often the plays deteriorated into a hopeless “mess” with no good ending so to make a happy ending the Greeks ended with what they called the “Dues ex machina” literally translated: God from the machine. They lowered the “God” from the heavens with a crane like device and he straightened out the hopeless situation humanity had gotten itself into and gave a happy ending. FACT CHECK: There is no crane with a Dues ex machina above Washington DC or the UN. We have to use logic and when we add 2+2 we need to come up with 4. Logic not emotion is what will save the day if it is to be saved.
In 1887 Alexander Tyler, a Scottish history professor at the University of Edinburgh, had this to say about the fall of the Athenian Republic over 2,000 years ago: “A democracy is always temporary in nature it simply cannot exist as a permanent form of government. A democracy will continue to exist up until the time that voters discover that they can vote themselves generous gifts from the public treasury. From that moment on, the majority always votes for the candidates who promise the most benefits from the public treasury, with the result that every democracy will finally collapse over loose fiscal policy, which is always followed by a dictatorship.” Unless we (actually this applies to the entire West) regain control of the government(s) and restore a rapidly deteriorating order soon we will collapse into anarchy then inevitably a dictatorship will emerge. The reason dictatorships arise is because in order to regain control and reestablish safety, security, and stability, once lost, requires draconian measures that can only be achieved when inefficiency and individual interests take a backseat to society as a whole. Democracy is too inefficient and based in catering to the wants, usually selfish, of the individual and not the needs of the whole to accomplish the task. Unless we act we (all Western nations) are going to have totalitarian governments of which there is no avoiding. We are almost at the point that a semi-authoritarian state based on reality and logic is preferable to the worthless and dysfunctional cluster we have now become. By accepting this as reality we may be able to salvage our culture. Whether recognized or not or acknowledged or not Western culture is what we value. If the transition is peaceful we may be able to avoid collapse and an extreme totalitarian state in the future. (Note Snopes, the accuracy of which is often dubious, said this of the quote by Professor Tyler: “The “Alexander Tyler” quoted . . . . . is actually Lord Woodhouselee, Alexander Fraser Tytler, a Scottish historian/professor….” They also said there is no record of him writing a work titled “The Fall of the Athenian Republic” but all the information I read and any mentions of him did not say he wrote a work by that name but they had him using the wording as a descriptor. Wikipedia has a good entry on him titled: Alexander Fraser Tytler, Lord Woodhouselee. Interesting read as he did not hold democracy in high esteem and whether he said the words, even if apocryphal, they are quite accurate.)
F.A. Hayek in his book The Road To Serfdom said: “No doubt an American or English “Fascist” system would greatly differ from the Italian or German models; no doubt, if the transition were effected without violence, we might expect to get a better type of leader. And, if I had to live under a fascist system, I have no doubt that I would rather live under one run by Englishmen or Americans than under one run by anybody else.” He went on to say: “yet all this does not mean, judged on our present standards, our fascist system would in the end prove so very different and much less intolerable than its prototypes. There are strong reasons for believing that what to us appear the worst features of the existing totalitarian systems are not accidental by-products but phenomena which totalitarianism is certain sooner or later to produce.” While this assessment is accurate but gloomy we are in a position of little choice of reexamining our systems and that little is being reduced further by internal lawlessness, external threats and increasing dysfunction in economics and government. Keep in mind I am not advocating a fascist system but a change to the present system. We may be able to mitigate the negative consequences of what is inevitable if a change is as he said “effected without violence“; a peaceful transition. With a major financial collapse, or a disaster caused by any one of a number of possible and irreversible events presently forming on the horizon, the result will be chaos and violence from which a brutal totalitarian state will emerge. We must accept the unavoidable and make a peaceful change and if we do we may be able to shape it and develop a mixed system which would be the best of both worlds. If we go into collapse we will get what naturally evolves and it is a 100% guarantee that only those on top will like it. Keep in mind I am not oblivious to the dangers in a less democratic state but we are heading in that direction and unless the vast majority of humanity suddenly has a collective epiphany all at once there is no reversing course. The increasing population, the dwindling resources, global frictions and the increasing technology make it inevitable. The number one problem is a problem most do not want to acknowledge. It is the problem that must be solved before any other can be adequately resolved. It is the increasing population. This is actually a global problem and only one nation has actually tried to address the issue. Solving ALL other problems can be directly tied to it. Not only do we need to stabilize the number we need to enact a system of quality control, unthinkable now but an ugly, sad reality that if avoided and ignored will produce an uglier and sadder reality. It is a problem that cannot and will not be solved by the democratic procedures of social democracy either internally or internationally.
The US has two legislative bodies: the Senate and the House. It is time all senators are appointed as was the original intent of the founders of the republic. The replacements should be appointed by qualifications rather than being elected for their glib ability at making wild outrageous promises that the Almighty would find impossible to keep. The Senate was never to be elected by popular vote. Anyone familiar with American history knows the founders held democracy in contempt as they considered it to be mob rule. (Incidentally all serious political thinkers held or hold democracy in contempt) The Constitution originally called for the US Senators to be appointed by the state legislatures but due to incompetence, cronyism, corruption, and the other ills that plagued us the Constitution was changed for their election by popular vote. What is happening now is what the founders foresaw and dreaded and it should be painfully obvious they were right.
As originally conceived the House was to represent the people and the Senate was to represent the state. Both congressmen/women and senators should have knowledge of many subjects. Law for one thing. Many elected officials have been lawyers but representatives need not be lawyers but must have at least a basic understanding of law. They should have several college level classes on the various types of law: civil, criminal, constitutional, business, environmental, and international. As well as law classes they should have classes in other subjects they will need knowledge of in order to make informed decisions. Classes, such as, but not limited to: history, comparative religions, psychology, sociology, international relations, and economics are musts. They should also have some knowledge in military policies, procedures, organizational structure and tactics as well as internal law enforcement policies and procedures. They need not have degrees just basic courses so when discussing and debating a bill they would have a fundamental knowledge of the subject. In plotting a course for a nation, a business or a military campaign, leaders are better off having a broad range of knowledge spread out over many topics. Intricate details can be supplied by the experts in the specific fields they have access to. No lobbyist intervention as we have now. If a company wants to make their opinions heard they can do so but no bribes. Violation of public trust should be a capital offense. Don’t like it choose another profession. Elected representatives need to be able to interpret the data supplied into a sensible, viable, coherent plan. Now they merely need be a certain age and be a citizen with no other qualifications at all required and it shows in the pitiful performance they now exhibit. To be unkind most are dumb as rocks. I am almost wholly convinced we have as leaders some of the stupidest human beings on the planet and if humanity is not unique to earth possibly the universe. I say this equally applicable to both parties. This of course shows that the intelligence and educational level of the people that put them in charge is stupider. For proof I ask how stupid can we be to elect people that are ignorant and totally clueless of what they are responsible for? That are immune from any consequences of being wrong? In the United States a barber needs more credentials than a national elected representative responsible for the lives and well-being of millions of people and trillions of dollars.
An excellent book on the subject is Democracy the God That Failed by Hans-Hermann Hoppe. (Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick, New Jersey.) It should be required reading for all elected representatives unfortunately, however, the majority probably do not have the intellectual capacity to understand it. I take issue with some of Hoppe’s ultimate solutions but agree with his analysis of the problems. The following are a few paragraphs from it and I hope they stimulate your interest to read it. A must for any library.
“After less than one hundred years of democracy and redistribution, the predictable results are in. The “reserve fund” that was inherited from the past is apparently exhausted. For several decades (since the late 1960s or early 1970s), real standards of living have stagnated or even fallen in the West. The “public” debt and the cost of the existing Social Security and health care system have brought on the prospect of an imminent economic meltdown. At the same time, almost every form of undesirable behavior: unemployment, welfare dependency, negligence, recklessness, incivility, psychopathy, hedonism, and crime has increased, and social conflict and societal breakdown have risen to dangerous heights. If current trends continue, it is safe to say that the Western welfare state (social democracy) will collapse just as Eastern (Russian-style) socialism collapsed in the late 1980s.” Page 102
“……….it is difficult to find many proponents of democracy in the history of political theory. Almost all major thinkers have nothing but contempt for democracy. Even the founding fathers of the U.S., nowadays considered the model of a democracy, were strictly opposed to it. Without a single exception, they thought of democracy as nothing but a mob rule. ………. even among the few theoretical defenders of democracy such as Rousseau, for instance, it is almost impossible to find anyone advocating democracy for anything but extremely small communities (villages and towns). Indeed, in small communities where everyone knows everyone else personally, most people must acknowledge that the position of the “haves” is typically based on their superior personal achievement just as the position of the “have-nots” finds its typical explanation in their personal deficiencies and inferiority. Under these circumstances it is far more difficult to get away with trying to loot other people and their personal property to one’s advantage. In distinct contrast, in large territories encompassing millions or even hundreds of millions of people, where the potential looters do not know their victims, and vice versa, the human desire to enrich oneself at another’s expense is subject to little or no restraint. Page 103/104
In a footnote to that Hoppe added: “John Adams was convinced that every society grows aristocrats as an inevitably as a field of corn will grow some large ears and some small. In a letter to John Taylor he insisted, like Plato and Aristotle, that democracy would ultimately evolve into despotism, and in a letter to Jefferson he declared that “democracy will envy all, contend with all, endeavor to pull down all, and when by chance it happens to get the upper hand for a short time, it will be revengeful, bloody and cruel.” (Footnote page 103)
“What are a democracy’s migration policies? Once again assuming no more than self-interest (maximizing monetary and psychic income: money and power), democratic rulers tend to maximize current income, which they can appropriate privately, at the expense of capital values, which they cannot appropriate privately. Hence, in accordance with democracies inherent egalitarianism of one-man-one-vote, they tend to pursue a distinctly egalitarian – nondiscriminatory – emigration and immigration policy.
“As far as emigration policy is concerned, this implies that for a democratic ruler it makes little, if any, difference whether productive or unproductive people, geniuses or bums leave the country. They all have one equal vote. In fact, democratic rulers might well be more concerned about the loss of a bum than that of a productive genius. While the loss of the latter would obviously lower the capital value of the country and the loss of the former might actually increase it, a democratic ruler does not own the country. In the short run, which is of the most interest to a democratic ruler, the bum, voting most likely in favor of egalitarian measures, might be more valuable than the productive genius who, as egalitarianism’s prime victim, will more likely vote against the democratic ruler. For the same reason, quite unlike a king a democratic ruler undertakes little to actively expel those people whose presence within the country constitutes a negative externality (human trash which drive individual property values down). In fact, such negative externalities – unproductive parasites, bums, and criminals – are likely to be his most reliable supporters. Page 144/145
“As far as immigration policies are concerned, the incentives and disincentives are likewise distorted, and the results are equally perverse. For a democratic ruler, it also matters little whether bums or geniuses, below or above-average civilized and productive people immigrate into the country. Nor is he much concerned about the distinction between temporary workers (owners of work permits) and permanent, property owning immigrants (naturalized citizens). In fact, bums and unproductive people may well be preferred as residents and citizens, because they create more so-called “social problems,” and democratic rulers thrive on the existence of such problems. Moreover, bums and inferior people will likely support his egalitarian policies, whereas geniuses and superior people will not. The result of this policy of nondiscrimination is forced integration: the forcing of masses of inferior immigrants onto domestic property owners who, if the decision were left to them, would have sharply discriminated and chosen very different neighbors for themselves. Thus, as the best available example of democracy at work, the United States immigration laws of 1965 eliminated all previous “quality” concerns and the explicit preference for European immigrants, replacing them with a policy of almost complete nondiscrimination (multiculturalism) Page 145/146
Now that leads us to the question why have they failed?
To be continued